21 July 2008
Nestle is expanding its water purification facility in Sheikhupura. Because this is a water treatment scheme that costs more than Rs. 25 million (and because the extraction of water has the potential to cause adverse environmental effect), Nestle was required by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997 to commission and submit an environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the project. It hired NESPAK to conduct the EIA.
WWF - Pakistan has slammed the EIA report.
I was told of the Nestle EIA a few days ago by a fellow Nabeela Ahmad, an advocate who also teached environmental law at LUMS. My first reaction was to dismiss the concerns, but Nabeela, quite rightly, pointed out that my skepticism would be justified as long as we lived in a world where water and access to water is treated like an entitlement. This is true (and she won the argument by convincing me). We often overlook the fact that most of us get flowing water 24/7. This is quite anomolous for a third world country. The fact that WASA still pumps water to most of the city's resident's speaks volumes about it (though some would say WASA does bugger all, which is also true!).
The point is that water can't be taken for granted. Nestle's activities in Pakistan have been fairly well documented by an ActionAid report. What's most depressing is the report clearlyunderlines the total lack of appreciation amongst the powers that be that water is a scarce resource (as opposed to a right or a commodity), and that our water usage should be regulated in this light. We cannot continue to let companies like Nestle pump water to be sold for profit, especially when it reportedly does so inefficiently and while government agencies responsible for water supply do not/can not do it for profit.
The WWF has commented on Nestle's EIA report. The comments look something like this:
The report tries to distort some basic facts by portraying extension of existing Bottled Water project as Water Purification Plant resulting in underestimation of the scale, complexity and potential impact of the Project.
The report does not describe the hydro-geological conditions in general and potential of the water aquifer in particular. There is no data or scientific information on water balance to assess the impact of withdrawing groundwater, which is the most important impact parameter. Pumping large quantity of water can affect the ground water level and availability in the area leading to major social and environmental disaster, therefore identifying a need to conduct a thorough water balance study. This study should atleast address important questions regarding following questions:
- What is the groundwater availability in the area?
- What is the current level of extraction for various purposes?
- What will be the daily rate of extraction of water? (The report proposes the water extraction on hourly basis).
- What will be the radius of influence due to groundwater extraction by this industry? What is the current rate of groundwater decline in the area? And how will the new plant alter/affect this equation?
Following are few other observations:
- In the report on page E-1 (last 3 lines), gives a totally different picture of water withdrawal. There seems to be a mistake in the unit. Instead of liters, it’s mentioned in m3. Even if we assume that it is in liter, still the water withdrawal is very high.
- The existing plant is producing 34500 bottles per hour. For this the total water withdrawn is 413,950 liters/hr, which looks unreasonably very high. As for every one bottle, Nestle is withdrawing 12 liters of water, which is highly wasteful and inefficient. The ratio of water consumption and bottle water production should not exceed (litre to litre) 3:1.
- Furthermore, data on wastewater discharge from the plants is also confusing.
- Measures concerning impacts of construction and operational activities of the proposed plant on the local / surrounding community are not considered in the impact assessment study.
- It is mentioned in the report that the water samples are taken from “the locations” for water quality testing and is also mentioned in the report that the locations are specified in the table below. However, tables to which text refer to does not explain or indicate the location (refer to section 4).
- The mitigations proposed do not correlate with the impacts identified during the assessment (refer to section 5 of the report). For example, it is mentioned in the report that air emission can cause health impacts including throat, eyes nose irritation, but at the same time the impacts are considered minor. Also as is mentioned in section 5.3.2, percentage or level of emission of PM is not specified.
- As is said in the report that the sewerage and drainage system of the area will improve, however, HOW it will be improved is not specified.
- The company should also incorporate groundwater monitoring, recharge and wastewater reuse / disposal into their Environmental Management Plan (EMP).
We strongly urge EPA Punjab to return this report, halt construction of proposed plant and ask the proponent to conduct a comprehensive scientific water balance study of the area.
It's time to take water management seriously. It's time to stop commercial interests from depriving people from safe and affordable drinking water. It's time to stop consuming millions of little plastic bottles of water (which wind up littering drains). It's time to stop being elitist and overlooking this problem.
19 July 2008
There's been plenty of debate about whether or not Shahbaz Sharif would scrap the local government ordinance. Most of the local government administration are affiliated with the PML-Q. Sane counsel prevailed, I am told, and the idea to scrap the PLGO was deemed to be as radical as the move to introduce it.
Be that as it may, the conspicuous absence of elected local government officials is quite a dismay. Shahbaz is filling the void between government and government by standing in for photo-ops and wading through knee-high rain water. At the same time, he is working very closely with the WASA, the water and sanitation agency of the Lahore Development Authority. In other words, Chief Minister Shahbaz Sharif is using a development authority rather than the local government as his main urban planning and enforcement weapon. The new MD WASA is an environmental scientist and was summoned from a federal post in the EPA by Shahbaz himself. The new DG of the LDA (formerly DG PHA)is another effective administrator and is spearheading the government's efforts to enforce local government bye-laws. The new DCO is busy ensuring that shoppers at the weekly Sunday Bazaars aren't taken advantage of.
Between these officers and offices we can identify the players Shahbaz will be using to manage the urban planning of the city. Save the DCO, none are from the local government administration. Statutorily, the LDA is an independent body but it falls under the administration of the Housing and Urban Development Department. LDA budget's are published and circulated only after the summary has received the assent of the CM. One can gauge how independent the LDA is. It isn't.
So much for not scrapping the system. This is just a polite way of going about it.
17 July 2008
Here's an example of a new Lahori Jharoka in a house in the area.
I resurfaced on Bund Road, in the precincts of the Nawankot Police Station. This is where one of Lahore's bigger bus addas is.
From there, I got back onto Multan Road and headed towards Chauburji. A little before Poonch House, I turned left.
Welcome to Chauburji Park
Below are some of the houses in and near Chauburji Park. The old house is very fascinating. It's located on Ramraj Road (please correct me if I'm wrong) and very near the Chuburji monument itself.
29 June 2008
This is the third and final installment of the photographs I took from a charter flight a few days ago.
The photo above is, I apologize, left over from the last blog entry. There, I tried to group together some photos that best brought Lahore's urban residential template into focus. The photos above is another example. Taken from above LUMS, you can see Phase V behind it and more DHA as far as the eye can see. Phase V has already been plotted out and people have not only begun construction, some have actually moved in. Within the next couple of years, the entire area behind LUMS in the photo above will be full of houses using cars, air-conditioners, drinking water and consuming other utilities in a non-sustainable and environmentally unfriendly manner.
That said, this photo is a good place to start this third edition of the Lahore from the Sky blog entry. We will be returning to DHA towards the end of today's entry.
Here's a good photo taken of GOR-I from over the Race Course Park. From here, you can clearly see the monstrous new Chief Minister's Secretariat building. I've written about this monstrosity before, and you can find a copy of my article here. The photo above also indicates where the park I write about is.
Here's another photo. You know, just below and to the left of the new CM Secretariat is the old Chief Minster's Official Residence. Below that is the GOR-I abadi. I had no idea it was so close to the boundary wall of the CM Secretariat. I'm sure there's a joke or a euphemism in this photo somewhere, I just can't seem think of it.
From the photo above you can make out the Governor's Mansion and the Lawrence and Montgomery Halls. Below the PC is the same GOR-I basti that you can make out in the pictures above. I've written about how I find this basti a bit of an urban planning conundrum. Think about it.
If you get a headache (or worse) while you're staying at the PC, do you know where the nearest pharmacy is? Okay, so what if the Concierge doesn't have Paracetamol, or what if you need something the hotel doctor doesn't stock? The nearest pharmacy is well over a 15 minute walk away.
What intrigues me about this is why the basti behind the PC hasn't responded to the market need. Why isn't this area (and it's comparatively cheaper land prices) a collection of small cafe's galleries and other things tourists and visitors need (like pharmacies). There must be something terribly wrong with our property development paradigm if this isn't happening. On the other hand, someone told me there weren't any cafe's behind the PC because Mr. Hashwani wouldn't want anyone making Rs. 115/- for every order of Coca Cola. Fair point.
The photo above and two below are when we flow over the Upper Mall area. I got some good photographs of the Mall Road between Zafar Ali Road and the Canal.
Below is a shot taken from the same position as above, but facing the other way. You're now looking from the Mall roughly northwards towards the Cantonment. On the top right of you photo, you can see the village and Tomb of Mian Mir. I'm fascinated about how old villages like Mian Mir, Ichra and Mozang were absorbed by the the growth of the city.
Mian Mir has played it's part in the history of this part of the city. Below is a portion of a 1927 survey map of the area. Raza posted some interesting information about the present site of the Gymkhana Club and its relationship with the Mian Mir area. Read more about it here.
We also managed to fly over the Tomb of Hazrat Mian Mir. You can see his shrine (below) and the pavilion attached to the complex (above).
Here's a picture of the pavilion from another angle, just to give you an idea of the size of the place.
Below are some photos of Charrar village in DHA. I consider these some of the most interesting photos I got. First, get your bearings. I've taken a snap from Google Earth that show you Charrar smack in the middle of High End DHA.
This is what the village looks like from the sky. From what I understand, the village came to surrounded gradually, with the development of new phases. By the time Phase IV came around, the village was totally surrounded. Like I said, I'm interested in how villages integrate themselves with the growing city. Charrar hasn't been very lucky. Read here (promises) and here (reality) why.
I happened to be on a commercial flight a few days later and, by chance, I managed to get another shot of Charrar after take off from Lahore airport.
Why does Charrar hold such fascination for me? Well, the gradual "criminlization" of the Charrar people (many in DHA, including the DHA administration, see the villagers as a nuisance) sets up a poor precedent for how urban growth accommodates pre-existing villages. That's not all, Lahore is set to expand even further in the coming years. Below is a snap from a satellite image of Lahore (the entire image can be seen here). You can make out DHA Phases 5 and 6 on the top and other housing societies to the left. But what will happen to the people of the villages that are now threatened by Lahore's development and expansion? Our urban planners and the DHA need to think long and hard about what the right thing to do is.
Anyone who wants to see the above image in all its glory can click here.
I've heard that DHA hasn't acquired the land for these villages because of the labor available there. I hope this isn't the case (and I will try and confirm it through my own sources and let you know), because it would be unfair to acquire a village's agricultural lands (as was done, for instance, in Charrar), use the village's labor and then create a high end residential accomodation scheme next to thousands of destitute former farmers.
The photo below is looking over and into the foundation of the upcoming Sheikh Zayed Center, the tallest building in South Asia. We were heading in to land and were on our approach run to the Walton airstrip. Note the cranes on the top left corner are completely submerged in the foundation. More interesting is how close the flight path to the runway is to the upcoming structure.
The pilots told us that there is some pressure to close the air club down. This pressure comes from the Air Force, which wants to use the land around the flying club for it's residential housing schemes. And on the other hand, the Sheikh Zayed Center is a joint venture between the Abu Dhabi Emaar construction company and the Government of Pakistan. Below is a clip I took from Google earth . It shows just how close to the flight path the construction is.
I wrote a piece on Walton airport much after this flight. You can find it here.
26 June 2008
The great advantage of chartering a flight (I recommend this to everyone, by the way, as one of the most entertaining way to spend an afternoon) is that you can treat it like a taxi.
After having flown over the older parts of town, I could sense that the pilots were falling to routine and were just covering a well worn "tourist" route. I asked them to fly over newer parts of Lahore.
I've written on Lahore's urban sprawl, but it really stands out from the sky. Now's a chance to show everyone what it looks like.
Above is the view from over Iqbal Town looking roughly eastwards. Note that residential housing dominates the photograph. To compare how Lahore has grown, I've cropped a portion of a 1927 Map of Lahore that I have.
In 1927, the only telling landmark is the line (on the top left of the map and heading downwards) demarcating Ferozepur Road. The area that is now Iqbal Town, or village Bhekewal, was mostly fields. There was no Punjab University on the Canal at the time. In fact, the land forming the University north of the Canal was used, it seems, as a rifle range.
Our houses are increadibly energy inefficient. From construction materials like cement and steel, which are energy inensive to produce, to energy consumption during use (like electricity, other utilities and automobiles) our houses consume massive amounts of energy. According to Economic Survey 2006-2007 (I know a new one has been published; I just haven't got round to reading it yet), the Household Sector consumes nearly 44% of all electricity produced.
Feast your eyes on prime examples of our energy guzzling urban development template:
Model Town is an old residential development dating to the early 1920s. It was an early example of the Garden City movement in this part of the world (the Garden City Movement is alive and well in 21st Century Pakistan - but that's another story). As a cooperative society, it was also one of the few instances where George Jacob Holyoak's revolutionary ideas on cooperation actually worked. Faisal Town is also relatively new (70s and 80s, from what I can gather).
We soon flew over parts of Johar Town and the many private housing schemes that are cropping up there.
For a better idea of all the housing societies coming up (as can be seen from the photos, most of these haven't been fully built up but will be in the next decade or so), click here (warning, large satellite image of Lahore).
Note the difference in density between Cantonment and non-Cantonment land (roughly, right and left of Zarar Shaeed Road). Below is another example (although the photo is really poor quality).
I can't get over the difference in density. Note the area along the railway lines and along Guru Mangat Road. This is civilan/Railway land. But note the almost deserted look of the land in Cantonment. People say there is a housing shortage fuelled by a lack of available land. Is this so? Or do we need to change our definition of what available land is.
Below is a look of how the Cantonment looked in 1927 (hint: enjoy the street names).
24 June 2008
I managed to get some pictures using my camera phone. The cockpit glass was scratched and so some of the pictures are less than perfect. Still, these photographs offer a unique view of Lahore.
Above it the view over Wahdat Road looking north towards Ferozepur Road. Punjab University is on the bottom left and you can see the Canal stretch from the top left of the picture across the screen. Ichra is to the top left.
The next few photographs were taken as we flew over the Badshahi Mosque and Minar-e-Pakistan area. I've taken some "touristy" shots, but there's lots to learn about the city. Note the density of the Walled City and the Qilla Lachman Singh area on the bottom part of the picture.
As we swung around to go over the mosque and fort again, we flew over the Karim Park area. I got a good photo.
I have a map of Lahore prepared by the Surveyor General of India in 1927. I've cut out the portion of this map showing the area I've photographed (and indicated where the new urban localities have come up). The differences are startling, especially since it's not been 100 years since this map was published.
As we flew over the mosque again, I got a good photo of the entire Mosque/Gurdwara/Minto Park/Fort/Minar-e-Pakistan area.
The great things about the charter flight is that we were able to tell the pilots where exactly to go. Since we were in the area, we decided to cross over the Ravi and fly over the Shahdara area. I got a few photos of Jehangir's Tomb and Asaf Khan's Tomb.
You can read more about the Tomb here.
In the next two photos, the layout of the Mughal garden can be appreciated.
Kaman's Baradari is visible at the top left of the photo. A better image can be seen here.
We then flew back over the Ravi. I managed to get an important photograph of "North" Lahore. This is the area to the north of the Railway lines and bound by the Bund Road. This is unregulated, forgotten, poor and dirty Lahore.
When I look at densely populated unregulated development like this I can't but ask myself what forces operate to dampen the market forces. There has never been any redevelopment of this area. The only development Lahore has known is the conversion of agricultural land to residential purposes. Older commercial areas then slowly turn onto industrial areas. Our urban planners must look towards redevelopment as the basic land management tool.
We then flew over other parts of the city, starting with the administrative heart of Lahore.
We then flew over Chauburji and the Miani Sahib graveyard (which our pilot insisted on telling us was the "largest graveyard in Asia," whatever that means. Note that the ruin that remains of Chauburji was one of the corners of the walls of the garden of the Mughal princess Zebunissa, the daughter of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.
Chauburji is located close to Mozang Chungi (the old toll station for where you paid before entering Lahore from Ferozepur Road). In fact, Mozang was a village considered, at one time, to be outside the city. The 1927 map by the Surveyor General shows what this area looked like less than 100 years ago.
If Mozang was a village on the outskirts of Lahore, wouldn't that make Princess Zebunissa's garden an early version of a Farm House?
23 June 2008
In Greek mythology the centaurus were barbarous beasts said to be half-horse and half-human. One centaurus, Chiron, was extremely wise and is said to have tutored Hercules and Jason (of the Argonauts). According to legend, Hercules inflicted an accidental wound upon his mentor that left the beast living but in great pain. Chiron begged and pleaded for the gods to end his suffering until finally, taking pity, Zeus mercifully let the beast die and gave him a place in the stars. Indeed, Centaurus the Centaur is considered the most magnificent of the southern constellations.
More recently, the spectre of a new centaurus has raised itself in the heart of our capital. Located on the corner of Jinnah and Faisal Avenues (for those who live in Islambad, it’s the huge hole in the ground at the western end of Blue Area), this centaurus is in the form of a property development envisioning high-rise luxury apartments, a business center and a shopping mall as well as “7-star star hotel.” Spread over 6.59 acres of prime real estate, the land for The Centaurus project is said to be the most expensive ever purchased in the history of Pakistan. And somehow, a photo of this mythical beast even graces the front page of the Economic Survey 2006-2007 published by the Finance Division of the Government of Pakistan.
Citizens of Islamabad, already in a state of alarm over the never-ending development projects being simultaneously undertaken in the city, are right to be concerned about this new development project. Some, no doubt in the wake of tragic earthquake of October 2005, are worried about the structural safety of such a high-rise construction in an area classified as Earthquake Zone IV. Some are worried that the traffic generated by this project will choke the main traffic arteries and some of the secondary and tertiary roads. Still more are worried about the effect this project will have on Islamabad’s water table. Others are concerned that the city’s infrastructure will not be able to cope with the demands of such a development. Some nearby residents are even concerned about the knock-on effect such a project will have on their neighborhoods and their homes. Clearly, an urban development project of this scale has adverse environmental effects.
Yet the manner in which the developers of this project, the Pak-Gulf Construction (Pvt) Ltd (PGCL), has carried out its responsibility to comply with our environmental protection laws leaves much to be desired. As if that weren’t enough, the Environment Protection Agency’s handling of this matter – on the eve of the 10th anniversary of the passing of the Pakistan Environmental Act, 1997 – is a stark reminder of the dismal enforcement record of our frontline environment protector and regulator. It’s as if the PEPA mandatory procedures didn’t exist or, if it did, didn’t matter. All this points to a grave misunderstanding of the nature and purpose of such a law and the procedures it lays out for anything that may harm the environment.
Conscientious citizens, led by Qazi Isa Daudpota, Helga Ahmed and others, wrote to Mr. Asif Shuja Khan, the Director-General of the EPA, making him aware of the serious environmental concerns raised by such a development as well as the fact that construction of The Centaurus began without the submission of an EIA and before a public hearing could be held (both punishable violations of the mandatory provisions of PEPA). For its part, the environmental regulator responded by issuing toothless reminders to the PGCL to comply with the law. The developers, in turn, engaged the services of Hagler Bailly which churned out an EIA report giving the project the green light it had been paid to do.
Some of the EIA report’s contents are quite revealing. For instance, it records that the CDA, in its agreement with PGCL, “shall at its own cost be responsible for providing all basic services such as electricity, gas, water, sewerage, drainage at the site of the Plot no later than the approval or deemed approval of the Plans or the Revised or Revised Plans as the case may be.” Such a concession may be a measure of the investor-friendly stance our government, but isn’t expecting the people of Islamabad to subsidize the infrastructure for the development a tall order? – which is what will happen when the CDA offsets the cost of providing The Centaurus utility infrastructure against the revenues it receives in the forms of fees and taxes.
While the EIA report considers The Centaurus an environmentally friendly prospect (and no doubt the EPA will approve the project – Qazi Isa Daudpota et al will continue to give it the scrutiny it deserves), the disclosures it makes raise questions about the decision making process that led to such a project being allowed in Islamabad in the first place. Indeed, there’s much to question about a mind that thinks a “7-star hotel” (whatever that is?) is a viable business proposition in a city which has seen a military operation and two bomb blasts in the last two months alone. Obviously, these minds are not familiar with the Ryugyong hotel in Pyongyang, North Korea.
Some say it was with stars in their eyes (other suspect it was one of those Cold-War type reactions to news that a South Korean firm had just constructed the Westin Stamford Hotel in Singapore) that the North Korean Government decided to build the world’s largest and tallest hotel. Construction began in 1987 at an estimated cost of $750 million, or 2% of the country’s GDP (for comparison, 2% of the US GDP would be about $220 billion). Indeed, the Ryugyong hotel undertaking was a massive undertaking for such a poor country.
When the basic cement structure was erected, the building measured in at nearly 1,110 feet and boasted 3.9 million square feet of floor space. The scale of the North Korean government’s mistaken belief in its ability to fill it can be estimated by the fact that, while the hotel was built with more than 3,000 rooms, at the time it was constructed only several hundred tourists visited the country. Yet so great was their belief in the hotel that – just as the cover of the last Economic Survey published by the Government of Pakistan carried an artist’s rendition of The Centaurus – it issued postage stamps with the hotel printed on them before the structure was complete.
Tragically, construction was halted in 1992. The North Korean Government (with stars in its eyes) just ran out of money. The structure has never been certified safe for habitation and not even the windows have been installed. Attempts to draw investment to complete the project have not worked either (the North Korean government even announced it would allow developers to use the building as “casinos, nightclubs or Japanese lounges . . .” if they agreed to complete it. To no avail: the skeleton of the structure casts its shadow over all of Pyongyang. It can literally be seen from every corner of the city and is a constant decaying reminder to the hubris that built it. Even the postage stamps have been declared invalid.
The Centaurus project also bristles with a contagious hubris of its own. Perhaps it will cloud the view from the site to the slums off F-7. So far, it has managed to convince the powers that be that it is a step in some imaginary right direction. One can only pray that this centaurus becomes all it promises to be, for if it isn’t, it will sit there, fouling the skyline of Islamabad and waiting for a Zeus to put it out of its misery.
25 May 2008
Requesting the Chief Minister of the Punjab
Reclaim the Birdwood Barracks Property
Sardar Dost Muhammad Khosa
Chief Minister of the Punjab
Chief Minister’s Secretariat
We, the undersigned residents of Lahore, would like to draw your attention to the proposed auction of the Birdwood Barracks property located on Waris Road.
The Ministry of Defence has placed this property on auction to be used for commercial purposes (a copy of the Invitation for Expressions of Interest for the property is attached).
Your Excellency, the property upon which this Barracks stands belongs to the Government of the Punjab and the people of Lahore. Since before Partition, this property has been in the use of the military. At the time, it was given so that the armed forces could carry out their public purpose of defence. By putting this 22 acres of open land on auction, and that too for commercial purposes, the Ministry of Defence has made it clear that our armed forced no longer needs or requires it for any further military use or defence purpose. It stands to reason, therefore, that this property – regardless of its monetary worth or development potential – must now revert to its original owners: the Province and people of Punjab.
The great city of Lahore has grown exponentially in the recent past, but this development has not been for the benefit of the common man. On the other hand, public open spaces – the very lungs of our city and the recreational space of millions – are constantly sacrificed in the name of progress. The fact that the 22 spacious acres of the Birdwood Barracks property is available to the Government is a unique opportunity to redefine Lahore’s urban experience and frame your Government’s policy and strategy towards the challenges posed by our urban development.
We humbly request you to exercise your Constitutional power and advise the Governor of Punjab to make a formal application requesting the Government of Pakistan to return the Birdwood Barracks property to its rightful owners. We would also request you to take this once-in-a-lifetime opportunity and declare that this property will be used for no other purpose save public recreation, and that it is open to all.
Lahore, once the city of gardens, now has precious few left. Your actions may result in the gift to this city of its last great park and garden. History will keep record of your decision.